sábado, 21 de novembro de 2009

Online Teaching Techniques - Annotated bibliography

This annotated bibliography aims to bring together a set of ideas that result from a survey about "online teaching techniques”, conducted in the UC Processos Pedagógicos em e-learning.
It isn’t alphabetically organized.

Paulsen, M.; “Teaching methods and techniques for computer-mediated communication”. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/22/icdepenn.htm

“Teaching takes place in a system that defines opportunities and constraints and within a system environment that influences the teaching process. The system could be more or less flexible with regard to the teaching methods and techniques that could be applied.”
It’s described the Paulsen’s Theory that argues that "adult students will seek individual flexibility and freedom. At the same time, they need group collaboration and social unity. Computer conferencing, when integrated with other media, can be the means of joining freedom and unity into truly flexible, cooperative distance education programs."
The author refers that “there are no quick, definite, or ready-made answers to the question of how much flexibility a course or program should provide. Nevertheless, teachers and program planners who address the issue of system flexibility are likely to provide better teachingsystems.”

Are referred three components constituting the process of adult education, discussed by Verner(1964, 35): "There are three basic components inherentin the establishment of [a relationship for learning between an educational agent and a learner]: organizing people for learning,helping the participants to learn, and selecting from the multitude of devices available ... to facilitate the operation of the first two. These three components are identified as methods, techniques,and devices."

Verner (1964, 36) distinguished between individual methods and group methods. This paper suggest that the methods are related to the four communication paradigms often used in CMC. The paradigms are information retrieval, electronic mail, bulletin boards, and computer conferencing. And so the framework comprises the four methods: one-alone , one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many.
“A pedagogical technique is a manner of accomplishing teaching objectives. The techniques introduced here are organized according to the four communication paradigms used in computer-mediated communication.”
The techniques classified as one-alone are characterized by retrieval of information from online resources and the fact that a student can perform the learning task without communication with the teacher or other students.
The techniques classified as one-to-one can be conducted via e-mail applications.
The techniques discussed as one-to-many will typically be conducted via World Wide Web, bulletin boards or distribution lists for e-mail.
The techniques presented as many-to-many can be organized within computer conferencing systems, bulletin board systems, or distribution lists for e-mail.

Using the CMC-classification derived from Rapaport (1991), there are four major CMC-devices: information retrieval systems, electronic mail systems, bulletin board systems, and computer conferencing systems. These four CMC-devices correspond primary to the four methods: one-alone, one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many.

The System Environment
Teaching takes place in a system environment that influences the teaching process. Focusing on adult education, Donaldson discussed the environment in view of constraints, demands, and choices.

Paulsen, M. (1995); “The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication”. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/19/cmcped.html#g

In this online report are given the definitions of Computer-Mediated Communication (Cmc) and Pedagogical Technique.
It’s made a brief review of the literature describing techniques that can be used to facilitate adult learning and an overview of possible pedagogical CMC techniques:
McCreary and Van Duren (1987)
1.The notice board
2.The public tutorial
3.The individual project
4.Free flow discussion
5.The structured seminar
6.Peer counselling
7.Collective database
8.Group product
9.Community decision making
10.Inter-community networking
Harasim (1991 and 1992)
2.Small group discussions
3.Learning partnerships and dyads
4.Small working groups
5.Team presentations/moderating by the learners
6.Simulations or role plays
7.Debating teams
8.Peer learning groups
9.Informal socializing: the online cafe
10.Mutual assist for help
11.Access to additional educational resources
Rekkedal and Paulsen (1989)
1.Distribution of information
2.Two-way communication between tutor/counsellor/administration and student
3.An alternative to face-to-face teaching, introduction of group discussion and
4.project work
5.The public tutorial
6.Peer counselling
7.Free flow discussion
8.The library
Kaye (1992)
1.The virtual seminar
2.The online classroom
3.Online games and simulations
4.Computer-supported writing and language learning
5.Multi-media distance education adjunct
6.Lecture-room adjunct
7.The education utility

A pedagogical technique is a manner of accomplishing teaching objectives. The techniques are organized according to the four communication paradigms used in computer-mediated communication: The Online Resource Paradigm, The E-mail Paradigm, The Bulletin Board Paradigm and The Conferencing Paradigm. And each
paradigm correspond to one the four methods: one-online, one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many.
So, in this article the techniques are organized according to the four communication paradigms used in CMC

1.One-alone Techniques: The Online Resource Paradigm
Online journals, online databases, interviews, online interest groups.
2.One-to-one Techniques: The E-mail Paradigm
Learning contracts, internships, apprenticeships.
3.One-to-many Techniques: The Bulletin Board Paradigm
Lectures, symposiums, skits.
4.Many-to-many Techniques: The Conferencing Paradigm
Debates, simulations, games, case studies, discussion groups, brainstorming, Delphi techniques, nominal group process, forums, group projects.

“Quizz on Online Teaching Techniques”. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://www.studymentor.com/Quizzes/Online_Teaching_Techniques.htm

In this quiz we can associate the Teaching Techniques to the four techniques by dragging and dropping the 24 Teaching Techniques under the correct categories.

Salter, G. & .Hansen, S., “MODELLING NEW SKILLS FOR ONLINE TEACHING”. Retrieved November 18, 2009, from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane99/papers/salterhansen.pdf

This article considered important to model the new teaching strategies and skills required for teaching successfully in an online environment
It’s listed the following Methods for teaching online:
• Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication (eg. email, discussion groups)
• Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (eg.chats, desktop videoconferencing, groupware)
• Online Assessment
• Learning Resources
• Documents (eg. lecture notes, readings)
• Multimedia (interactive or otherwise)
• Links to external resources
• Student Prepared Material
And the following Methods to structure online activities:
• Requiring a deliverable (eg. plans, designs, papers, portfolios etc)
• Limiting the scope of activities in terms of size and/or time
• Providing closure to activities
• Actively moderating discussions
• Conducting collaborative projects
• Interacting with guest speakers
• Debates & role plays
• Surveys & polls
• Formation of learning teams
• Brainstorming

“List of online databases”. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_online_databases

This is a list of online databases accessible via the internet

Brogan , C. (2008); “50 Online Applications and Sites to Consider”, posted in the blog “Community and Social Media”. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from

This is a list of things that we might check out a little bit at a time to see what appeals, what fits into our workflow, and what we can dismiss as unnecessary for our needs.

“Software libraries” posted in the site “Free Software Directory”. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://directory.fsf.org/category/libs/

In this post we can check the Categories within Software libraries and Projects within Software libraries.

“Online Interest Groups” article posted in the site “Infopool by computer Partners”. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www.compar.com/infopool/Online-Interest-Groups/

Give a list of articles and information about specific interest topics and groups that we can find online.

Gangel, K.;” 24 Ways to Improve Your Teaching” , posted in “Bible.org” site. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://bible.org/series/24-ways-improve-your-teaching

Provide the links to several teaching techniques.

Gangel, K.;“The Interview as a Teaching Technique”, posted in “Bible.org” site. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://bible.org/seriespage/interview-teaching-technique

“The objective of the interview is to solicit information about a specific topic so that the class may have the opportunity of responding to this information.”
This article highlights the positive points of the interview:
• Student’s participation: “the student who interviews must be involved right from the point of assignment, through the securing of the information, to the presentation, discussion, and evaluation in the class.”
• Opportunity to plug in a vast amount of information to the classroom setting
It also clarifies that are Problems in Interview Teaching like the need to motivate the students or the student’s incompetence to formulate satisfactory interview questions; and the principles for effective interview teaching.

Gangel, K.;“Teaching with Case Studies” , posted in “Bible.org” site. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://bible.org/seriespage/teaching-case-studies

“We can bring case studies into class in printed form and use them as the content of a discussion, or we can actually send our students out to do the field work of observation, analysis, and reporting on the thoughts and behavior of real, live people.”
Values of the Case Study Approach:
• confront the student with a real life situation
• of great interest to students
• it’s geared to teach problem-solving methods
• by using live case studies instead of printed ones, we take a big step forward in the development of maturity on the part of our students.
Problems with Case Study Teaching
• “If we fail to present meaningful contemporary cases for our students to deal with, we have diminished the value of the approach”
• Immaturity of the students
• The teacher’s inability to write satisfactory cases
Are also listed the principles for effective case study teaching

“Learning Contracts”, posted in the site “Best Practice: Pieces of the Puzzle”. “Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www.centralischool.ca/~bestpractice/contract/index.html

Gives a description of a learning contract

Erdogan, F.;“What is an Internship? “, posted in “The International Educational Site”. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www.intstudy.com/articles/nusinter.htm

DeRosa, T. (2009); “Creating skits to teach Math and Science”, posted in blog “I want to teach forever”. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from

This post suggests that a skit should be:
3.Written in a conversational tone
It’s given an example for a math´s skit.
And suggest that is positive to have the students writing skits.

segunda-feira, 16 de novembro de 2009

Tema 2: Directrizes de qualidade no desenvolvimento/avaliação de cursos online

A Actividade 2 tem como objectivo caracterizar diferentes modelos de desenvolvimento/avaliação da qualidade de cursos online, tendo em vista propor um modelo de avaliação que resulte dessa análise e da discussão gerada.

Leitura e análise do texto escolhido, tendo em vista realizar uma síntese que foque os seus principais aspectos, caracterizando a proposta de modelo/avaliação da qualidade de cursos online.
Neste sentido, o grupo optou por elaborar um documento word complementando-o com uma apresentação de slides:

Check out this SlideShare Presentation:

Tema 1

Ainda no tema 1 da UC Concepção e Avaliação em e-Learning, foi pedido que se identificassem factores responsáveis pelo sucesso/qualidade dos cursos online.

Assim, a partir da leitura dos textos sugeridos pela docente, da pesquisa que realizei na internet e do contributo dos colegas no fórum de trabalho na plataforma moodle, considero que estes factores centram-se em: o aluno; o professor os conteúdos do curso; as tecnologias.

O aluno:
Disponibilidade on-line do aluno;
Perfil do aluno on-line;
Nível de disponibilidade dos alunos on-line;
Motivação para a aprendizagem;
Percepções do aluno;
Auto-eficácia do aluno;
Autonomia do aluno;

O professor:
Nível do manuseamento e da navegação
Promotor do espírito crítico
Organizador da discussão on-line
Fornecer uma estrutura para o desenvolvimento e independência dos estudantes online
Cuidado por parte do professor na apresentação/criação os conteúdos e das metodologias utilizadas;

Os conteúdos:
Material didáctico;
Qualidade da informação;
O conteúdo do estudo;
O projecto pedagógico

As tecnologias
Facilidade de uso do site on-line para aceder aos recursos;
Acessibilidade e estruturação
Design de interface do curso
Qualidade do sistema

Activity 4 - Role Play

Those of us who did not volunteer for the debate on activity 4, could choose to take part in a simple role play which intended to give more insight in the facets of freedom presented in the readings.
So I decided to create a bed time story:
Once upon a time there was a boy that was different of all the boys of his age: he couldn´t run like his friends did, he didn´t play football like his friends did, he didn’t climb trees like his friends did, …
He peered through his room’s window and dreamed he was like his friends and had the same opportunities.
And like all the boys of his age he loved to learn more and more every day, but once again he was different of his friends, he wasn’t able to further studies because of his disability.
That boy grew up and became a EaD student, allowing him to choose some of the deadlines of the activities, the time to study, the location from where he want to study; allowing him to access to several media or sources of information providing different learning styles; giving him the possibility to structure the curriculum appropriate to his interests.
And his biggest dream became true because now he has the freedom to decide whether or not he is able to attend and further studies.
And for that boy, now a man, that's equal to have the freedom to decide whether or not he is able to run like his friends did, to play football like his friends did, to climb trees like his friends did,…
And for that boy, now a man, this is the biggest conquest of all: “the freedom of access”.

Sweet dreams

sábado, 7 de novembro de 2009

Tema 1: A qualidade no ensino aprendizagem em contexto online: uma teia de factores

Começa uma nova aventura: UC @Concepção e Avaliação em e-Learning

E começa em grande com o tema: A qualidade no ensino aprendizagem em contexto online: uma teia de factores

A Actividade 1 tinha como objectivo a análise de perspectivas sobre a qualidade em e-Learning.
Em que se pretendia clarificar conceitos correlacionados com a qualidade em e-learning; fazer o levantamento do conjunto de factores que determinam a qualidade dos cursos online.
Numa 1ª fase realizámos a leitura dos textos:
PENNA, Maria Pietronilla & STARA, Vera (2008) "Approaches to E-learning quality Assessment". http://isdm.univ-tln.fr/PDF/isdm32/isdm_pietronilla.pdf
WISENBERG, Faye & STACEY, Elizabeth (2005) "Reflections on teaching and Learning Online:Quality program design, delivery and support issues from a cross-global perspective". Distance Education Vol.26, Nº3, (385-404). http://casat.unr.edu/docs/Weisenberg2005.pdf
Ao que se seguiu a divisão dos textos pela turma para que fossem traduzidos.
Nesta fase fiquei incumbida de traduzir: Critical Support Issues that Emerged / Quality Teaching Support: pp 397 – 399
Esta fase não foi fácil uma vez que as Línguas não são a minha área, mas penso que me safei.
O trabalho de tradução foi colocado numa wiki http://cael.pbworks.com/ que foi criada para o efeito, permitindo que toda a turma procedesse a uma revisão global, dando origem à versão final da tradução dos textos (3ª fase) colocada no fórum da moodle.